stress, effective


stress, effective
   Stress (pressure) that is borne by and transmitted through the grain-to-grain contacts of a deposit, and thus affects its porosity or void ratio and other physical properties. In onedimensional compression, effective stress is the average grain-to-grain load per unit area in a plane normal to the applied stress. At any given depth, the effective stress is the weight (per unit area) of sediments and moisture above the water table, plus the submerged weight (per unit area) of sediments between the water table and the specified depth, plus or minus the seepage stress (hydrodynamic drag) produced by downward or upward components, respectively, of water movement through the saturated sediments above the specified depth. Thus, effective stress may be regarded as the algebraic sum of the two body stresses, gravitational stress, and seepage stress. Effective stress mal also be regarded as the difference between geostatic and neutral stress [21].

A Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology with Special Reference to Environmental Karst Hydrology. . 2002.

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